The Investigation Crime Scene Investigations. Incident Response: Computer Forensics Toolkit. The Encyclopedia of Crime Scene Investigation.
Incident Response and Computer Forensics. Computer Forensics A Pocket Guide. Computer Forensics: A Pocket Guide. Investigating Computer Crime. Crime Scene. Recommend Documents. I am confident that many practition Many colleges now offer certificate programs in computer forensics, which would be most beneficial to law enforcement officers , paralegals or individuals who are already involved in investigative work.
Step 1 Is becoming a computer crime investigator right for me? Are computer crime investigators happy with their careers? Explore related careers Ethical Hacker. Network Administrator. Customer Service Representative. It is the UK standard that provides the procedure that should be followed by the practitioners and focuses on the collection of evidence. These guidelines are considered as essential instruction to computer forensic investigation and cover different aspects of computer crimes and electronic devices.
It comprises of the four fundamental principles that are further explained in the original document ACPO Collection Phase 2. Examination Process 3.
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Analysis Phase 4. The examination process is examined the medium for evidential data, while the analysis phase tests the outcome of the examination for its relevance to the existing case. The report or statement describes the findings on a forensically sound manner. As the guide aims to concentrate on the collection of evidence, limited information is provided for the overall procedure. Discussion on the Existing Frameworks and Methodologies The existing frameworks are attempts to formalise the investigative procedure.
They all appear to have positive and negative features, the discussion of which will assist in generating the properties of our 'crime specific' investigation framework. In addition, investigation frameworks that do not only focus on digital forensics, but are related to specific crimes are also discussed in this section. The Computer History Process Model Carrier and Spafford, approaches the digital investigation from a different angle; the computer history.
It is the aspect that we approach an investigation as well; it discloses the history of the computer system in a manner similar to the physical investigation. The four phases that constitute the Carrier and Spafford framework section 2. They manage to verify the idea even though there is a differentiation between the physical and the digital world. The model is highly theoretical with some practical implication Carrier, This suggests limited applicability to actual investigations.
It would appear that the actual purpose of this work is to assist the academic, rather than the practitioners. However, this framework is a model that a crime specific framework could be built upon. In Digital Evidence and Computer Crime Casey, a generic model to fit all computer crimes is presented. The interesting part of his framework is the evidence processing cycle that prompts the examiner to revisit a phase, when additional information is required.
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An element that is significant for an investigation and should also be contemplated for the design of the crime specific framework. It is considered as a standard towards a forensic investigation Ieong, Casey presented a framework that would be general enough to include all procedures of the computer forensics investigation. He even refers to the extraction of data from different digital media, different operating systems and mobile devices.
However, it is not focused on a specific area. This positions it as an all-purpose guide and reference to computer forensic investigations. It is an effort to formalise the procedure. The knowledge acquired from Casey does contribute to our design of the cybercrime investigation framework, but due to its non-direct link with formal academic research it was decided not to be used as the base model of the framework. It is descriptive, broad and developed in the terms of the evidence collection and the technology. In addition, it covers a wide range of digital devices.
Therefore, it needs to be focused and detailed having the crime in mind. The Hierarchical Objectives-based Framework Beebe and Clark, proposed a multi-tier investigation framework. It is looking for evidence with more detail, on a lower level, unlike other frameworks and appears well structured overall.
However, such an effort on a general investigation framework could also become the weakness of an approach that attempts to assist all types of computer crime investigations. It is easy to overlook some aspects when everything is attempted to be included. The authors comment that they tend to adjust their method in order to include different types of devices and operating systems. This could cause problems with applicability to future systems. Department of Justice, published the American governmental guidelines of approaching computer forensic investigations.
There is an interesting part of this framework that needs to be noted. It is the categorisation of evidence based on the type of crime and the potential locations that the investigator should focus his examination for evidential data. For example, laminators and printed e-mails refer to physical evidence and can be used as additional to the digital. However, the model is actually a first response and does not focus on the examination of the media. On the contrary, the objective of the crime specific framework is the examination of the media in order to provide relevant evidence with the type of cybercrime.
Reith et al. Department of Justice separate the analysis and the examination in different phases in the framework.
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The analysis is about searching and extracting data for them, while the examination is about generating evidential data from the extracted source Beebe and Clark, This could be confusing for the practitioners. It was designed by police officers for police officers and it is therefore a practical guide. Computer forensic investigators across the UK tend to adopt it.
However, the guidelines state that digital evidence can be accepted under certain circumstances even when it does not comply with the guide. Even though it is a general procedure that tends to cover everything, it gives weight on volatile data, network forensics and the Trojan defence.
Because of its structure and the fact that it is not an analytical framework it cannot be used as the base for the proposed work. However, it is an accredited guide and is taken under consideration for the design of our crime specific framework. The requirement for the development of these specialised areas has demonstrated the need for more focused frameworks and guidelines. In the literature some research has been identified that has a similar approach to the one proposed in this paper.
Katos and Bednar propose a cybercrime investigation framework for developing investigation support among the stakeholders that influence the investigation. It is not a framework that provides guidelines for the investigation procedure, but rather an information system that acquires the information provided by those that take part during a forensics investigation.
Their system is generic in order to cover all different types of computer crime, but can be adjusted to a specific type of crime.
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Their method aims to assist the forensic investigation in providing him with a flexible approach. It approaches the investigation by examining the type of the offence. It uses mathematical theories as a base standard, probabilities and open problems that make it complex and confusing in some areas. On the other hand, it is a presented system that could maintain the investigation based on the type of crime. Their work though, seems to be under development and their publication does not compare their proposed system with any other similar frameworks or computer forensic investigation frameworks.
They propose the development of a software tool that could assist forensic investigations by extracting packets that can reconstruct a VoIP conversation. Ferraro and Casey have a publication aiming to assist the investigation of child exploitation and pornography. Even though their work focuses on the legal aspect, there are specific guidelines that refer to the forensic investigation of the specific type of crime that are enhanced with examples.
It seems that the existing published work of Casey is used throughout the book and applied to child exploitation.