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This represents a highly underdetermined image reconstruction problem with a large number of degrees of freedom. We regularize the problem by applying binary and connectivity constraints to the image, and seek the solution using the method of iterated projections. However, since the constraints are highly non-convex, the usual methods of generalized projections are not effective.

We use the difference map projection algorithm and show that this is effective with simulated diffraction data from a protein envelope. Article :. Methods in Enzymology Vol.

Data collection for X-ray crystallography

The integration of macromolecular diffraction data. Powell, H. Autoindexing diffraction images with iMosflm.

Macromolecules, X‐Ray Diffraction of Biological

Karplus, P. Assessing and maximising data quality in macromolecular crystallography. Hattne, J.


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MicroED data collection and processing. A Found. Crowther, R.

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MRC image processing programs. Steller, I. An algorithm for automatic indexing of oscillation images using Fourier analysis. Download references. We thank P. Evans for many useful discussions on data processing and reduction, and K. Manne for providing the images for the multi-lattice example. The original iMosflm graphical interface was designed by T.

Further development of the graphical interface was performed by L. Correspondence to Andrew G W Leslie. To obtain permission to re-use content from this article visit RightsLink. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications IUCrJ ACS Catalysis Journal of the American Chemical Society The Journal of General Physiology By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines.

If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Article metrics. Advanced search. Skip to main content. Subjects Data processing Software X-ray crystallography. Abstract X-ray crystallography is the predominant source of structural information for biological macromolecules, providing fundamental insights into biological function.

Rent or Buy article Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube. References 1. Google Scholar 3. Google Scholar 4. Google Scholar 5. PubMed Article Google Scholar 7. PubMed Article Google Scholar 8. PubMed Article Google Scholar Google Scholar Now, with the advent of affordable, commercially sourced and purified synthetic DNA and RNA molecules suitable for immediate crystallization trials, and combined with the availability of specialized and validated crystallization screens, researchers can now undertake in-house crystallization trials without the need for local expertise.

When this is combined with access to modern synchrotron platforms that offer complete automation of the data collection process—from the receipt of crystals to delivery of merged and scaled data for the visualization of electron density—the application of X-ray crystallographic techniques is made open to nonspecialist researchers. In this chapter we aim to provide a simple how-to guide to enable the reader to undertake crystallographic experiments involving G4s, encompassing the design of oligonucleotide sequences, fundamentals of the crystallization process and modern strategies used in setting up successful crystallization trials.

We will also describe data collection strategies, phasing, electron density visualization, and model building. We will draw on our own experiences in the laboratory and hopefully build an appreciation of the utility of the X-ray crystallographic approaches to investigating G4s. Of the two types of CODHs, the oxygen-tolerant. Despite the fact that we have a basic understanding of how both types of CODHs use distinct active sites to catalyze the oxidation of CO with water to CO 2 , two protons, and two electrons a reversible reaction in the cases of the oxygen-sensitive CODHs , many questions remain unanswered, especially concerning the electronic structures of the intermediate states.

Since these states will likely be only revealed by the interplay of experimental and theoretical methods, there is a need to obtain accurate descriptions of the active site architectures in various states and, consequently, a need to generate crystals with good diffraction quality and collect data at element-specific wavelengths in order to determine the identity of elements in the case of mixed states.

This chapter provides a description of the general working protocols for the crystallization and structural analysis of Cu,Mo-CODH and Ni,Fe-CODH that facilitates the mechanistic investigations of these important metalloenzymes. X-ray diffraction crystallography is the primary technique to determine the three-dimensional structures of biomolecules.

Although a robust method, X-ray crystallography is not able to access the dynamical behavior of macromolecules. To do so, we.

To do so, we have to carry out molecular dynamics simulations taking as an initial system the three-dimensional structure obtained from experimental techniques or generated using homology modeling. In this chapter, we describe in detail a tutorial to carry out molecular dynamics simulations using the program NAMD2. We chose as a molecular system to simulate the structure of human cyclin-dependent kinase 2. Since the early s, we have witnessed considerable progress in the development and application of docking programs to assess protein—ligand interactions. Most of these applications had as a goal the identification of potential new binders to.

Macromolecular Structures from Single Molecule X-Ray Diffraction Experiments (Code Number 07-19)

Most of these applications had as a goal the identification of potential new binders to protein targets. Another remarkable progress is taking place in the determination of the structures of protein—ligand complexes, mostly using X-ray diffraction crystallography. Considering these developments, we have a favorable scenario for the creation of a computational tool that integrates into one workflow all steps involved in molecular docking simulations.

This program allows the integration of all computational features related to modern docking studies into one workflow. SAnDReS not only carries out docking simulations but also evaluates several docking protocols allowing the selection of the best approach for a given protein system.

Beamline VMXm - Versatile Macromolecular Crystallography (micro/nano focus) | WayForLight

AutoDock4 is a free program that has been applied to over a thousand receptor—ligand docking simulations. Circular Dichroic CD spectroscopy is one of the most frequently used methods for guanine quadruplex studies and in general for studies of conformational properties of nucleic acids. The reason is its high sensitivity to even slight changes in. The reason is its high sensitivity to even slight changes in mutual orientation of absorbing bases of DNA. CD can reveal formation of particular structural DNA arrangements and can be used to search for the conditions stabilizing the structures, to follow the transitions between various structural states, to explore kinetics of their appearance, to determine thermodynamic parameters, and also to detect formation of higher order structures.


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  6. CD spectroscopy is an important complementary technique to NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction in quadruplex studies due to its sensitivity, easy manipulation of studied samples, and relative inexpensiveness. In this part, we present the protocol for the use of CD spectroscopy in the study of guanine quadruplexes, together with practical advice and cautions about various, particularly interpretation, difficulties.

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    Green-to-red photoconvertible fluorescent proteins repeatedly enter dark states, causing interrupted tracks in single-particle-tracking localization microscopy sptPALM. We identified a long-lived dark state in photoconverted mEos4b that results. We identified a long-lived dark state in photoconverted mEos4b that results from isomerization of the chromophore and efficiently absorbs cyan light.

    Addition of weak nm light swiftly reverts this dark state to the fluorescent state. This strategy largely eliminates slow blinking and enables the recording of longer tracks in sptPALM with minimum effort. As crystallography requi.